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World markets for textile machinery: part 3 -- finishing, January-February 2007
published in Issue 127, January-February 2007
This report examines the market for mercerising, dyeing, bleaching, washing, and fabric drying machinery, based on a survey of 11 machinery manufacturers by the International Textile Manufacturers Federation (ITMF).
Mercerisation is used to increase a fabric’s affinity for dye. Bleaching is used primarily on cotton or cotton blend fabric and yarns to improve a fabric’s whiteness—although it can also be used on wool, linen or acrylic. Before bleaching, woven fabric is singed, desized and then scoured. Knitted fabric is normally singed and scoured.
Dyeing can be carried out at almost every stage of the finishing pipeline—using continuous processes or batch processes at pressure or in open vessels. The choice of method depends partly on the nature of the textile, the type of dyestuff and the end use. Discontinuous dyeing is undertaken on jig, winch, pressure beam or jet-type dyeing machines. Jigs and winches operate at atmospheric pressure whereas pressure beams and jet type machines are used to dye materials at higher temperatures and pressures.
Continuous fabric drying can be carried out using cylinders and stenters. Drying cylinders are steam heated drums over which the fabric passes. However, they tend to pull the fabric and effectively reduce its width. For final drying, stentering frames allow the fabric to be stretched to the required width and dried at the same time. Stenters can also be used for fixing dyes and chemical finishes, and for chain mercerising. Discontinuous fabric drying can be carried out using hot flue machines and relaxation drying machines. In hot flue machines, fabric is dried in open width form by circulating hot air. Relaxation drying machines are used to relax stresses and strains in fabrics—especially weft knitted fabrics—and to shrink the fabric in length.
In 2005, 37 mercerising machines were delivered to the world’s mills. Of this total, 36 were for treating woven fabrics and one was for knitted fabrics. Deliveries of machines for continuous bleaching, dyeing and washing numbered 192, of which the majority were for woven fabrics. 40 of the 192 machines were bleaching machines and 104 dyeing machines, of which 102 were for use in the manufacture of woven fabrics. Global sales of discontinuous bleaching, dyeing and washing machines stood at 56. All were for woven fabrics. The number of cylinder drying machinery shipments stood at 37 and stentering machines 166—of which 94 were for woven fabrics. In the case of discontinuous machinery, 15 hot flue machines and 35 relaxation drying machines were shipped to the world’s mills in 2005. Of the 35 relaxation drying machines, 32 were for knitted fabrics.
Six times a year, Textile Outlook International provides up to 200 pages of expert comment and analysis. A subscription provides an overview of the global fibre, textile and apparel industries. It is essential reading for senior executives in the fibre, textile and apparel industries – and for anyone who is not involved in the industry, but needs to quickly gain an understanding of the key issues.
Reports in Textile Outlook International include:
country profiles – providing a comprehensive guide to the textile and clothing industries in a range of countries and regions. The reports include an economic and political profile together with a comprehensive overview of the main issues, plus an outlook for the future.
company profiles – giving you the opportunity to learn from strategies employed by others. Companies profiled recently include retailers, manufacturers, innovators and sourcing companies involved in textiles and apparel as well as smaller companies which illustrate the opportunities for firms which are interested in selected sourcing locations.
trends in world textile and apparel trade and production – taking into account current issues facing the industry – such as global fibre prices; competition from China and other low cost countries; the elimination of quotas and imposition of selective new ones; relocation of production operations; the impact of economic factors affecting trade; international trade agreements; trade promotion agreements (TPAs); and much more.
trends in EU and US imports of textiles and clothing – providing comprehensive statistical data and analysis of the top ten supplying countries to the EU and US markets. These reports are updated each year and contain value and volume data as well as average prices and analyses of trends for up to 15 product categories.
innovations, technological developments, business development opportunities, individual sector analysis and political implications which affect players in the global fibre, textile and apparel industries. Some of the topics which have been covered in recent reports include: new innovations in the textile and clothing industry, such as environmentally friendly textiles, plant based fibres, and developments in textile colorants; innovations in textile machinery; and overviews of the European swimwear, hosiery and lingerie markets.
So whether you are involved in fibres, textiles or clothing – in manufacturing, spinning, weaving, knitting, sewing, import/export, retailing – or if you are in education or consultancy or investment or finance, a subscription to Textile Outlook International will tell you what you need to know about the key trends in the industry.
Textile Outlook International is available on subscription – either in printed format only, or in printed and electronic format. If you choose the printed only option, you will receive 6 printed publications a year, containing a total of 30 reports plus editorials written by Robin Anson, our editorial director and in-house industry expert.
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In addition, you will be able to download PDF files containing the same information – but the PDF files will be available immediately on publication, so you don’t have to wait for the printing and mailing. You also have all the benefits of electronic files: instant access even when you are away from the office; convenient storage in your PC or laptop; portability; electronic search facility; and copy/paste facility.